Distributed Cognition Blog Post 2

This comic depicts my students using their Seesaw journals in the classroom. I often integrate a Seesaw activity into my lessons as it allows students to demonstrate their understanding and ability through activities of key concepts covered in the lesson taught. For example, after a STEM learning activity and corresponding read-aloud, I created a Seesaw activity to integrate technology into the learning experience. The students were prompted to draw a picture of what they would look like if they were the turkey in the story, and where in school they would hide if they got loose. Students used the tools in Seesaw to draw themselves as a turkey and then used the text tool to write the location of where they would hide. Students then used the record tool to record themselves saying where they would hide, and why they picked that spot. This activity allows students to express themselves, demonstrate text-to-self connections through personal experiences, as well as create deeper understanding through an enriching and engaging technological activity. Other examples of my integration of Seesaw activities have been reading comprehension questions as well as the incorporation of social and emotional health standards that allow students to express themselves. As Seesaw journals are only shared with the teacher, this allows students to feel comfortable talking about different concepts and aspects, while learning and developing as holistic individuals in the classroom. My teacher’s main incorporation of Seesaw journals in day-to-day activities is the implementation of social studies and science. My teacher will integrate a youtube video or read-aloud that will provide students with an exploration into a particular concept or topic. Students will then complete several activities such as writing prompts, work sheets, comprehension questions, and self-to-text connections. Seesaw journals integrate ELA standards and other content areas seamlessly through the various activities and elements. Teachers are able to facilitate high levels of learning through Seesaw as well as connect with students through the incorporating of personal experiences and individuality of activities and answers.

Distributed cognition is defined as the following, “a way to understand how people interact with their environment and how they can be enabled by the environment to undertake highly complex tasks that would usually be beyond the abilities of the unassisted individual” (Morgan, pg.127). Distributed cognition theory provides a significant insight into how learners conduct activity in computer mediated learning environments and how they interact with content using mediating artifacts (Morgan, pg.126). Distributed cognition is when learners are guided into cognitive activities that are appropriate, meaningful and effective, and purposeful. Seesaw journals create an environment that reflects distributed cognition as individuals are encouraged to think critically, develop high-level processing and problem-solving through the use of technology and programming. The effects through technology allow for students to develop 21st-century skills and are able to enhance the performance and academic achievement of the activities through supports and engagement (Saloman, pg.79). The effects with technology of Lexia creates a partnership that separates the students from the distractions of lower-level cognitive functions and allows for the individual to focus on high level thinking that leads to an improvement of intellectual performance (Salomon, pg.74).

There are several technology affordances when it comes to Lexia implementation in the classroom that are worth noting as the affordances and constraints greatly impact student learning and ability to use Lexia and facilitate learning (Morgan, pg.127). The teacher has to assign and allow access to activities, but the teacher has full creative ability to create activities and implement worksheets. Seesaw journals allow for a clear learning purpose as all activities are relevant to the classroom teachings and other instruction since it is assigned and created by the teacher. The teacher needs to spend a fair amount of time on Seesaw to learn the ins and outs of creating different activities, how to facilitate high-level learning, while also ensuring it is applicable to student academic success. In addition, Seesaw is a great way to communicate with parents and guardians through chats and messages. Seesaw is a great resource for the classroom but requires some time and effort to use effectively and efficiently. There is also a great deal of the material and abilities that students need to learn in order to operate and interact with their Seesaw journals. My teacher held a “how to” workshop to show the different aspects of the app and how to engage with the learning environment. The following skills students need to learn are about the login process, such as signing in through their Clever account, which is associated with a QR code that they must scan and then choose the Seesaw journal on the Clever site. In addition, students needed to learn how to get to the right class and teacher, as multiple teachers use Seesaw, such as their special teachers. Students then have to learn how to find the assigned activities. Students then learn about the various elements such as saving their work as a draft, how to submit their work, how to edit a submission, as well as the tools such as being able to write, use the text tool, draw different colors and use tools and utensils, using the record button. Seesaw is a great way to support learnings of all levels, as it allows for individualized activities, which is great for differentiation and personalized instruction, as well as supports such as information and words being read to them.

Seesaw facilitates high level processing as well as moderate level processing as students both create and compose through various activities and instruction through the journal entries (Morgan, Pg.134). Students are encouraged to paraphrase and reorganize, as well as write, label, summarize, and relate. Lexia creates an enriched learning environment and facilitates learning through complex activities that demonstrate the ability of technology to foster meaningful and purposeful learning to students. Monitoring includes identifying places of mismatch as well as ensuring complete coverage in information presented or knowledge demonstrated (Martin, pg.95). Through Seesaw, teachers have the ability to monitor student achievement. Teachers can view saved drafts and submission, allowing teachers to assess what students understand and have mastered. On Seesaw, teachers do not have access to monitor how much time students spent on an activity, and are not given grades and pre-assessment scores, as all activities must be checked by the teacher as they are created by the teacher. The teacher can use these assessments as a progress report through daily checks as well as determining when to move on to a new concept or topic. This is a key aspect that is helpful when there are big achievement gaps between students in one classroom, as the teacher can observe the various levels in the classroom. The incorporation of this technology programming leads to making students smarter. The youtube videos and supplemental activities allow students to facilitate high level thinking and learning and are able to apply their knowledge in various literacy concepts and aspects.

Martin, L. (2012). Connection, Translation, Off-Loading, and Monitoring: A Framework for Characterizing the Pedagogical Functions of Educational Technologies. Technology, Knowledge & Learning, 17(3), 87-107.

Morgan, M., Brickell, G., Harper, B. (2008). Applying distributed cognition theory to the redesign of the ‘Copy and Paste’ function in order to promote appropriate learning outcomes.  Computers & Education, 50(1), 125-147.

Salomon, G. & Perkins, D. (2005)”Do Technologies Make Us Smarter? Intellectual Amplification With, Of and Through Technology.”In: Robert Sternberg and David Preiss (Eds.).Intelligence and Technology: The Impact of Tools on the Nature and Development of Human Abilities. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Publishers. pp. 71-86.

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Distributed Cognition Blog Post 1

This comic strip demonstrates the integration of technology through the student app Lexia Learning. Lexia is used in my classroom at various times during the day, such as whole class work time, small groups, centers, and homework. Students work independently on their literacy instruction to practice targeted phonics and literacy skills. Lexia Learning provides structured literacy solutions and professional learning to 5.5 million K-12 students and their 350K educators at over 20K schools nationwide. Lexia’s digital-centric solutions can be used together or individually to meet structured literacy learning needs for any student as well as teachers who support them. Lexia’s comprehensive suite of curriculum, assessment, and professional learning solutions is designed to meet the needs of all literacy students. Lexia’s approach is focused on sound methodology, engaging experiences, and continued acknowledgement of the value of each individual learner. Lexia’s curriculum is rigorous, personalized, structured and systematic. The solutions are centered around a personalized approach to learning, and are designed to give students more control over the time, place, path, and pace of their progress. Lexia believes technology is a key component of personalized learning, but that it does not stand alone. The effects with technology of using Lexia Learning creates a partnership that separates the students from the distractions of lower-level cognitive functions and allows for the individual to focus on high level thinking that leads to an improvement of intellectual performance (Salomon, pg.77). With Lexia, teachers are able to prioritize and differentiate instruction, allowing students to develop critical reading skills at their own pace. Lexia solutions are different from edtech games and test prep programs. They’re founded upon a structured and systematic approach to literacy instruction that builds upon prior learning in a sequential manner, ultimately improving each teacher’s ability to deliver critical literacy concepts, strengthening the relationship with, and transitioning ownership of learning, to the student. Distributed cognition is defined as the following, “a way to understand how people interact with their environment and how they can be enabled by the environment to undertake highly complex tasks that would usually be beyond the abilities of the unassisted individual” (Morgan, pg.127). This means that distributed cognition is when learners are guided into cognitive activities that are appropriate, meaningful and effective, and purposeful.

There are several technology affordances when it comes to Lexia implementation in the classroom that are worth noting as the affordances and constraints greatly impact student learning and ability to use Lexia and facilitate learning (Morgan, pg.127). Using Lexia, the teacher can assign goals and target skills, but the app has a set program and progression of activities and literacy components that create a strong, enriching learning environment that becomes more challenging as the student advances through skills and concepts. The teacher has the ability to check student progress in class such as units completed as well as how much time the student spent actively working on Lexia through the teacher’s “minutes check ” ability. For students to be able to use and learn from Lexia, there are a few technical skills students need to learn to be successful on their own. The first skill is general how-to knowledge of using their iPad as their technological device. The following skills are about the login process, such as signing in through their Clever account, which is associated with a QR code that they must scan and then choose the Lexi app on the Clever site. Students need to learn other skills such as how to save their work, end the learning session, how to exit a particular activity, and how to refresh the screen. These are all elements that students need to be shown, so that they can work independently on the app. For these skills and other general directions and guidelines for the app, my teacher implemented a workshop the first week of school to walk students through using the app. The teacher modeled how to sign in, how to navigate through the process and app, and other necessary components.

Lexia facilitates high level processing as well as moderate level processing as students both create and compose, as well as manipulate and restructure (Morgan, pg.134). Students are encouraged to paraphrase and reorganize, as well as write, label, summarize, and relate. Lexia creates an enriched learning environment and facilitates learning through complex activities that demonstrate the ability of technology to foster meaningful and purposeful learning to students. When it comes to integration of Lexia, there is a slight opportunity for student offloading. A student could sit at their desk and click random answers, the app would then prompt support, such as reading the question or passage, eliminating an option, or another planned support. If a student did this, it would not add any units or allow them to level up, but they would be supported and assisted through the app as the app would process and provide information and answers for the students (Martin, pg.94). I believe this is more of a behavioral issue than a system offloading because it is not what the app was designed for, as the true purpose is not offloading but supportive, enriching literacy learning as students develop key literacy skills through practice. 


Monitoring includes identifying places of mismatch as well as ensuring complete coverage in information presented or knowledge demonstrated (Martin, pg.95). Through Lexia, teachers have the ability to monitor student progress. Teachers can see how much time students spent on an activity, can see how many units, or activities, they completed, and can see what levels and concepts they have mastered. Lexia allows for formative assessment as the teacher can assess which skills, sight words and other phonic concepts such as bends, digraphs, and diphthongs have been mastered. The teacher can use this as a progress report through daily checks assessments as well as determining when to assign unit tests to the whole class or to specific individuals. This is a key aspect that is helpful when there are big achievement gaps between students in one classroom. The incorporation of this technology programming leads to making students smarter. This is demonstrated during their rising benchmark scores over the first few months of school. In general instruction, it is clear that the skills and activities being learned on Lexia are allowing students to gain a better understanding of literary elements while being engaged and having fun. While Lexia alone should not be relied upon for all literacy instruction, it is an amazing resource that allows students to learn in new ways.

Martin, L. (2012). Connection, Translation, Off-Loading, and Monitoring: A Framework for Characterizing the Pedagogical Functions of Educational Technologies. Technology, Knowledge & Learning, 17(3), 87-107.

Morgan, M., Brickell, G., Harper, B. (2008). Applying distributed cognition theory to the redesign of the ‘Copy and Paste’ function in order to promote appropriate learning outcomes.  Computers & Education, 50(1), 125-147.

Salomon, G. & Perkins, D. (2005)”Do Technologies Make Us Smarter? Intellectual Amplification With, Of and Through Technology.”In: Robert Sternberg and David Preiss (Eds.).Intelligence and Technology: The Impact of Tools on the Nature and Development of Human Abilities. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Publishers. pp. 71-86.

BlogPost: Access to Technology:

Who are the people at your school in charge of the technologies available to advance the learning of students? Identify as many of these people as possible:

Director of educational technology –  John Duplay

Curriculum technology integration specialist – Anthony Satullo

Assistant Technology Directory for Instruction – Rob Gongola

Technology maintenance? – Sean Conroy, Andrew Drozd, Jean Mazzaro, Ruth Miozzi and Chris Thomas

Technology security personnel – John Duplay

Library media specialist – One per building, Gates Mills is Christy Christensen

Details of what technology is available, where it’s located, quantities of technologies (i.e. is there a classroom set of iPads for the students to work with)?

At Gates Mills Elementary, kindergarten and first grade have full classroom carts of iPads. These devices to not go home, but students have an assigned number of iPad that they use each school day. For students 2nd grade-12th grade, every student is given a Chromebook to keep. These Chromebooks travel between home and school, as the students use their individual Chromebook for assignments in school as well as at home with out-of-class assignments. Each school building has at least one cart of “extra” Chromebooks in case a student forget theirs at home or there are technology issues. These Chromebooks are updated every 3-5 years, so students will return their school issued Chromebook and receive a new one when updates and necessary.

Are the technologies readily available and are they in working order?  How do students and teachers gain access? Is there a means for reserving them? Are there required purchases by families?

Yes technology is readily available through carts in all school buildings as well as extra iPads and Chromebooks available along with charging cords.  There is an IT Help desk for staff and parents/students that can always offer support and further assistance when necessary. Mayfield has a great IT department who is wonderful about answering questions and offering relatively quick to solve issues but for teachers and students. There is a Mayfield staff portal and a Mayfield Website for families to gain access to school websites and information. Students and teachers do not have to reserve anything because there are entire class sets of devices that are either housed in classrooms or every student has one of their own. The only purchase by a family for a device is the cost of repairs. There is one “fix” of a broken Chromebook covered by the district, but after the the family is charged. It should be noted that the district rarely collects this money, unless the damage is purposeful and repeated by the student and/or family.

What is the nature of the firewall blocking access to applications? Is there a process to transcend or move around the firewall? Who is in control? What is available and what is blocked and why?

The firewalls purpose is for the safety of students to keep them from accessing inappropriate websites or questionable material.  Students can only email staff members, there is no access to public email through their Mayfield account.  Student emails and access begin in 2nd grade. Only the IT department has the ability work around the firewall.  Every teacher with the help of a IT staff member and coordinator can add or delete applications, allowing access to certain sites but there may be a wait time and planning required to do so. K-1 iPads are locked and specific apps are pushed out while Chromebooks are managed and can be accessed remotely. Teachers can reach out to IT to block or unblock sites as needed.

Significantly, pay close attention to and document who you are speaking with.  What is their role or do they have a title? Who is able to direct you to the people with the most information? Who has the most and/or best information?

My cooperating teacher got me in touch with the following individuals that allowed me to learn so much about technology in Mayfield City School District. Laurel Ravida is Gates Mills Principal who offered great insights on how Gates Mills and the IT Department work together and Jennifer Hancock, who is former Technology Instructional Coach, offered behind the scenes information and background through her experiences working in the IT department across the district.

BlogPost: Observing Classroom Technology Use

Observing my students:

What software applications and hardware are students using in the classroom?

In my PST classroom, students have access to their individual school issued ipad. Students do not take their school ipad home, but leave them at school overnight in the ipad cart. This ensures all students will have access to technology in the classroom, and school provided technology can always be allotted for and kept track of as it stays in the classroom cart. The teacher does not assign homework or activities that require technology, so all students are able to complete homework assignments whether or not they have access to their own technology device or a shared device at home. In this classroom, students use several software applications to enhance their learning: Epic, Seesaw, Lexia, and Wren. These electronic websites and softwares are mostly used during student centers and individualized student work time.

Describe what the students are doing with the technology that you identified.

During centers and individualized work times, students work on Epic, Seesaw, and Lexia to further their learning. On Epic, students have access to a wide range of texts that serve as guided readers, where there is an ability for the text to be read to them. This is a great resource for my students who need support and assistance reading texts, as each student can be helped on their own individual level through the software purpose and website. On Seesaw, students can engage with teacher assigned activities that allow them to use various resources to further their learning of topics and concepts already taught and covered during whole class and small group instruction. Lexia provides direct phonics instruction and helps build foundational skills and practice in reading to students and allows for differentiated instruction through various levels and achievement opportunities. 

What software applications and hardware are facilitating/impeding the conditions that make student learning possible? How so?

Epic facilitates learning and differentiated instruction because of the resources it provides to students of all abilities. For example, the teacher can assign one text for all students but Epic allows each student to interact with the text differently. For a student who is at level with that text, the student can read on their own and move on to the activities. The student may not need any assistance during the activities and be able to complete them individually. Another student may use the “read to me” or “buddy reading” tool where the student can have the entire sentence read to them, or can just click on unknown words and have those read to them. This allows the student to have their needs met at their level. For the following activities, the software offers prompting and “look-backs” to answer the questions for the students who need it, those that answered incorrectly the first two times. I would identify as Seesaw being between both facilitating and impeding. There are so many great opportunities for students on Seesaw, and there are great tools that foster learning. Students have the ability to record themselves reading a text or narrating a picture. This is crucial as the teacher cannot always get to each student during a class period, and can look later in the day at their work and achievement on a specific task. The way that this software has impeded some learning is that when my teacher links youtube videos for supplemental instruction opportunities, the seesaw app shows the suggested youtube watch ads. Sometimes my students end up off task due to the fact that they are distracted by other youtube videos. Although the students know the rules and expectations for these activities, it can be hard to monitor all 18 ipads at the same time to ensure students are following directions.

Observing my cooperating teacher:

What software applications and hardware is your cooperating teacher(s) using in the classroom? Document both hardware and software.

In my classroom, my cooperating teacher uses her desktop computer, keyboard, hover camera, and smartboard in her daily instruction routine. Additionally, my teacher uses Seesaw to communicate with parents and students, and does routine check-ins on Lexia and Epic as an Administrator. My teacher uses their software applications daily, being able to send out notifications and daily “mail” to parents, as well as assigning activities and checking progress on Seesaw, Lexia, and Epic.

Describe how your cooperating teacher(s) uses the software applications and hardware.

My teacher uses Seesaw to communicate with parents throughout the day. The chat feature allows her to send out messages and pictures to the whole class, as well as individual students. For example, on a student’s birthday, she will send a picture of the child with the birthday crown on to the parents to build that communication and strong connection. On the whole-class field trip, my teacher was able to take a picture of all the students on the bus and send it out to all the parents as a fun memory and image to share about their adventures of that day. My teacher also uses Seesaw to assign activities and learning instruction to students, so that students can work independently. My teacher uses Lexia and their curriculum to chart their phonics and literacy progress and development throughout the year. My teacher uses Epic to assign level appropriate texts for students to engage with as well as texts that are relevant to the other teachings, activities, and events happening in the classroom, school, and community.

What software applications and hardware are facilitating/impeding the conditions that make teaching possible? How so?

My teacher’s use of her desktop, hover camera, and smartboard facilitate learning in the classroom each day. For example, the teacher uses her desktop computer to pull up slides and videos and then projects these on the smartboard so all students can see and interact with the materials. Every morning meeting, there are specific slides that walk the students through the morning routine. Additionally, my teacher uses her hover camera frequently, for direction instruction and allows all students to watch her work as the camera projects the images on the smartboard. Students are able to use the teacher’s work as a model for an assignment, facilitating learning and teaching to 18 students at one time.

Digital Storytelling: Script

  1. My current world of organization is operated through Goodnotes, an app on my ipad, phone, and mac computer. All scheduling, notes, and every information possible can be found on my Goodnotes app. There are folders of notebooks, each labeled and organized, as well as a search tool that helps find any information within seconds, scanning thousands of pages and documents. The ability to sync the apps on all technological platforms allows for a seamless transition between devices. The ability to access Goodnotes on any device creates a harmonious learning environment with unlimited opportunities. If someone asked me about an observation 2 semesters ago, a class last semester, or what I was doing on February 25th, I would be able to tell you via Goodnotes search bar exactly what I observed that day, I could pull up notes from a class, or show my daily schedule and to-do list for that exact date. 
  2. Here is a sneak peak into my digital planning life. My calendars are color-coded and full of events for monthly, weekly, and daily schedules. I have notebooks for assignments, to-do lists, and in class assignments. (Further voice over guiding the audience through the aspects of digital planning and tools available in the app while the video demonstrates them being used.)
  3. A few years ago, my learning was fostered through an environment of pen and paper. I constantly carried a notebook around, and I had thousands of sticky notes posted around my notebooks and room. I rewrote schedules, to do lists, or grocery lists constantly. I would write down my homework assignments daily and was obsessed with planning and organization. I had a favorite set of colored pens, and each subject, assignment, activity, and list was color coordinated. During the COVID-19 pandemic when all my classes were held online on zoom, I was thrown into an unfamiliar learning atmosphere where pen and paper no longer were a helpful resource. All assignments were virtual, exams and papers needing to be submitted electronically. I began to experience different ways and methods that I could keep my organization and engagement in a virtual learning environment. The summer and fall of 2020, I worked as a floater teacher at Kiddie Academy. Once again, all aspects were virtual, student profiles, lesson plans, parent communication, and student daily report and log. Once again, I was challenged and motivated to find a new way of learning and organizing that I advanced my ability to learn and and operate. When looking for apps for my iPad, I stumbled upon an app called Goodnotes. There was a one time fee to download, so I did some research on goodnotes to investigate whether this would be a good app for me. I watched some “how-to” videos and began to learn about all the tools and abilities through the app. I decided to purchase the app, and life of planning, taking notes, and organization changed in a way I would have never thought possible.
  4. Goodnotes being available on all platforms creates a learning environment where I am able to use multiple apps at once to enhance the writing process. Goodnotes is perfect for editing, especially someone who edits better with “pencil and paper.” In the screenshot you can see how I have made edits using the Goodnotes app on my iPad, and I now have Goodnotes pulled up on my laptop. I have split screen between my edits on Goodnotes and the paper from Google Drive right next to it. This allows me to look at the screen and make the finalized edits on the paper without having to look down or flip pages. The ability to edit like it is pen and paper without the effort and time of printing is a huge advantage of Goodnotes.
  5. One of my favorite aspects of Goodnotes is the ability to take a document, article, and directly upload it as a document to Goodnotes. This allows me to use the Goodnotes tools for notes taking, as well as have the reading saved in an organized folder. The ability to annotate a reading without the need to print, leads to fast paced learning and is accessible, just needing canvas, a device, and the Goodnotes app, all things I typically have on me at all times. For example, when engaging in a learning activity through an article, I am able to upload the document directly from canvas into Goodnotes. On my iPad, I open the canvas app and chose the correct course on the left sidebar. From there, I click on the correct document and open in on canvas. Once the document is open, on the top right corner I am able to press the upload Botton, and one of the options is “Open in GoodNotes.” After pressing this option, I am immediately taken into Goodntoes, where it prompts importation choices. For this document, I will import as a new document, and then find the correct class folder and upload it there. After upload the document into the Ed 457, it directly opens the document for you on Goodnotes. Pressing the left top arrow, Goodnotes takes you to the ED 457 folder, where you can see all other documents and notebooks for the class.
  6. The Goodnotes app has changed how I learn drastically over the 2 years. The advancements I have made have structured my learning through technology while maintaining my favorite aspects of learning from before. Goodnotes has enhanced my learning through various aspects that have allowed my creativity to flourish via the multitude of tools and resources available. I use Goodnotes to facilitate my learning everyday, leading to a cohesive understanding of how the world operates through my virtual footprint. *Ending paragraph then no voice over while music continues until video ends*

BlogPost Three: Digital Storytelling Across the Curriculum

(Screenshot from Pixton on our computers, 10/6)

Kervin, L. & Mantei, J. (2016). Digital storytelling: Capturing children’s participation in preschool activities. Issues in Educational Research26(2), 225–240. 

YAMAÇ, A., & ULUSOY, M. (2016). The Effect of Digital Storytelling in Improving the Third Graders’ Writing Skills. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education9(1), 59–86.

Husbye, N. E., Buchholz, B., Coggin, L., Powell, C. W., & Wohlwend, K. E. (2012). Critical Lessons and Playful Literacies: Digital Media in PK-2 Classrooms. Language Arts, 90(2), 82-92.

Video Game Blog Post 6: Sketchpad- An Advanced Digital Art Website

Although I think Paint-a-Long is a great starting resource for a 1st grade classroom, I think the website overall has its limitations. In addition to the lack of several components of great digital games and learning opportunities, the website always has a lack of tools for players. For example, there are not many drawing tools available for students: the colors are limited and there is only one type of drawing utensil available. While I think there are benefits to simplicity in a 1st grade classroom, I wanted to find another resource that would be similar to Paint-a-Long but would further engage student’s creativity and learning of digital tools. I found a website called Sketchpad, Your Digital Makerspace, that has wonderful resources and tools for students to use on their digital sketchpad website. Below I have attached several screenshots of me playing this video game. It is evident through these screenshots how Sketchpad has many more tools for players to use when drawing and creating a picture. I think Sketchpad would further engage students due to how fun and interactive the game is. When I was playing, I found myself so excited to try out each tool and mechanism. I was much more engaged creating my digital art on the sketchpad than I was on PBS Kid’s Paint-a-Long. I think both video games would be beneficial in the classroom and can be used in unique ways to further student learning.

(Screenshot as I play on Sketchpad, 9/28)

(Screenshot as I play on Sketchpad, 9/28)
(Screenshot as I play on Sketchpad, 9/28)

The tool bar is provided on the left-side of the website. Screenshots below demonstrate the complexity and aplenty of tools available to players.

(Screenshot as I play on Sketchpad, 9/28)
(Screenshot as I play on Sketchpad, 9/28)